Saturday, November 9, 2013

Hell, Hades, and Gehenna: A List of Verses


Confused about hell?  It’s no wonder.  Most English translations, and many other languages, use one word, "hell," to translate the names of two radically different places: Hades and Gehenna.  They couldn’t be more different:  one is spiritual, the other physical; one is temporary, the other eternal.  So how can we get these two straightened out?  We’ll start with a short description of each one, and then list all the verses where they appear, so you’ll know exactly what the Bible is talking about.

You may never have heard of Gehenna before, but Jesus used it frequently in his teaching.  It’s called the Lake of Fire in the book of Revelation.  This is the place where the damned go after their resurrection and final judgment.  It’s a physical place of torment that will remain for eternity.  And yes, it’s hot there.

Hades (in Greek, or Sheol in Hebrew) is the place where the souls of the dead go to wait for the resurrection.  It’s a purely spiritual place; their bodies remain in the grave.  It’s also temporary.  It will be destroyed at the time of the final judgment (Rev. 20:14).

There’s a nice part of Hades and a bad part.  The nice part is called Paradise (in Greek).  This is the Greek translation of “Garden of Eden” (Gan Eden in Hebrew).  This is the heavenly Garden of Eden of which the Eden of Adam and Eve was a foretaste and a foreshadowing.  It's also known as the "bosom of Abraham" (Luke 16:22) and the "heavenly Jerusalem" (Heb. 12:22).

The bad part of Hades is just called Hades, although there’s an especially nasty part of it called Tartarus (in Greek, or the “depths of Sheol” or “the lowest part of Sheol” in Hebrew).  This is the deepest, meanest part of Hades. 

There was a variety of opinions about where Hades was located.  Originally it was thought of as being under the earth, since that's where the dead were buried.  But in the time between the Old and New Testaments, perhaps under the influence of Greek thinking, some felt it was more appropriate, as a spiritual place, to locate Hades, both its good and bad sides, in one of the lower heavens.  Others preferred only to place the good side of Hades, Paradise, in the lower heavens, while the bad side remained below.*  But then, since Hades is a purely spiritual place, and not a part of the visible creation, does it really even mean anything to talk about “where” it is? 

* Those who thought Paradise was in the heavens were generally agreed that it was not in the highest heaven, which was the direct presence of God (God the Father, as Christians would put it).  This was because the direct face to face revelation of God the Father cannot take place until after the resurrection and the final judgment (Rev. 20:11).  It’s only in more recent times that the idea became popular that the souls of believers at death go directly into the full presence of the Father in the highest heaven.  But this idea was the result of the influence of Greek philosophy, which considered the spiritual state after death to be the final reality, and ignored or rejected the resurrection. 

So as you can see, Hades and Gehenna are two very different places.  And it makes a big difference if the Bible is talking about one or the other.  So here’s a list of all the verses where they are mentioned by name in the Bible, complete with an excerpt of that part of the verse. (There are even more verses that refer to these places without using their names, but they are not included here.)  For a more detailed teaching about Paradise, Heaven, Hades, and Gehenna, see our sermon "What is the Eternal Destiny of the Human Soul?"

PARADISE / BOSOM OF ABRAHAM / HEAVENLY JERUSALEM

Luke 16:22:  and he was carried by the angels to the bosom of Abraham
Luke 23:43:  Amen I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise.
Gal. 4:26:  but the Jerusalem above is free, which is our mother
2 Cor. 12:4:  he was snatched up into Paradise, and he heard inexpressible words
Heb. 12:22:  to Mt. Zion and to a city of the living God, to a heavenly Jerusalem
Rev. 2:7:  grant him to eat from the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of God.

GEHENNA / LAKE OF FIRE

Matt. 5:22:  the one who says, ‘You fool,’ is deserving of the Gehenna of fire.
Matt. 5:29:  be destroyed and not your whole body be thrown into Gehenna.
Matt. 5:30:  members be destroyed and not your whole body go into Gehenna.
Matt. 10:28:  rather the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in Gehenna.
Matt. 18:9:  rather than having two eyes to be thrown into the Gehenna of fire.
Matt. 23:15:  you make him a son of Gehenna twice as much as you.
Matt. 23:33:  how will you flee from the judgment of Gehenna?
Mark 9:43:  than having two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire.
Mark 9:45:  than having two feet to be thrown into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire.
Mark 9:47:  than having two eyes to be thrown into Gehenna
Luke 12:5:  who has the power to throw into Gehenna.  Yes, I say to you, fear him.
James 3:6:  the tongue…sets on fire the cycle of life, and is set on fire by Gehenna.
Rev. 19:20:  the two were thrown alive into the Lake of Fire which burns with sulfur.
Rev. 20:10:  the devil, the one deceiving them, was thrown into the Lake of Fire and sulfur
Rev. 20:14:  death and Hades were thrown into the Lake of Fire. This is the second death,
Rev. 20:15:  was not found written in the scroll of life, he was thrown into the Lake of Fire.

HADES / SHEOL

Gen. 37:35:  For I will go down to my son, mourning, to Sheol.
Gen. 42:38:  then you will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol.
Gen. 44:29:  you will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to Sheol.
Gen. 44:31:  the gray hairs of your servant our father with sorrow to Sheol.
Num. 16:30:  and they go down alive into Sheol; then you will understand
Num. 16:33:  They, and all that belonged to them, went down alive into Sheol
1 Sam. 2:6:  kills and brings back to life; he brings down to Sheol and brings up.
2 Sam. 22:6:  The cords of Sheol surrounded me; the snares of death confronted me.
1 Kings 2:6:  and let not his grey head go down to Sheol in peace.
1 Kings 2:9:  but bring his grey head down to Sheol with blood.
Job 7:9:  so he that goes down to Sheol will come up no more.
Job 11:8:  can you do? Deeper than Sheol, what do you know?
Job 14:13:  O that you would hide me in Sheol,
Job 17:13:  If I wait, Sheol will be my home; in darkness I will spread out my bed.
Job 17:16:  The bars of Sheol will go down, when together on the dust we descend.
Job 21:13:  and in a moment go down to Sheol.
Job 24:19:  so does Sheol those who have sinned.
Job 26:6:  Sheol is naked before him; and the place of destruction has no covering.
Job 33:18:  He keeps back his soul from Sheol, and his life from perishing
Psa. 6:5:  no remembrance of you; in Sheol, who will give you thanks?
Psa. 9:17:  wicked will turn toward Sheol; all the nations that forget God
Psa. 16:10:  not abandon my soul to Sheol; you will not make your faithful one see the pit.
Psa. 18:5:  The sorrows of Sheol surrounded me; the snares of death
Psa. 30:3:  O LORD, you have brought up my soul from Sheol
Psa. 31:17:  let the wicked be ashamed, and let them be silent in Sheol.
Psa. 49:14a:  As a flock of sheep, they are appointed to Sheol; death will tend them,
Psa. 49:14b:  and their form to the wasting away of Sheol, far from its dwelling.
Psa. 49:15:  But God will redeem my soul from the power of Sheol
Psa. 55:15:  let them go down alive into Sheol, for wickedness is in their dwellings
Psa. 88:3:  For my soul is full of troubles; and my life draws near to Sheol.
Psa. 89:48:  will he deliver his soul from the hand of Sheol?
Psa. 116:3:  and the pains of Sheol laid hold of me
Psa. 139:8:  I make my bed in Sheol, behold you are there.
Psa. 141:7:  Our bones are scattered at the mouth of Sheol
Pro. 1:12:  Let us swallow them alive, like Sheol
Pro. 5:5: Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold of Sheol.
Pro. 7:27:  house is the way to Sheol, going down to the chambers of death.
Pro. 15:11:  Sheol and destruction are before the LORD, how much more the hearts
Pro. 15:24:  The way of life is above to the wise, that he may depart from Sheol below.
Pro. 23:14:  You will beat him with the rod, and will deliver his soul from Sheol.
Pro. 27:20:  Sheol and destruction are never full; so the eyes of man are never satisfied.
Pro. 30:16:  Sheol, and the barren womb, the earth that is not satisfied with water,
Ecc. 9:10:  is no work or reasoning or knowledge or wisdom in Sheol where you are going.
Song 8:6:  jealousy is as cruel as Sheol; its coals are coals of fire,
Isa. 5:14:  Therefore Sheol has enlarged itself and opened wide its mouth
Isa. 7:11:  Ask for yourself a sign from the LORD your God; ask it either in Sheol
Isa. 14:9:  Sheol from beneath is excited about you to meet you at your coming
Isa. 14:11:  Your pomp is brought down to Sheol, and the noise of your harps
Isa. 14:15:  will be brought down to Sheol, to the sides of the pit.
Isa. 28:15:  covenant with death, and with Sheol we are in agreement
Isa. 28:18:  annulled and your agreement with Sheol will not stand;
Isa. 38:10:  I said, in the quiet of my days, I will enter the gates of Sheol
Isa. 38:18:  For Sheol cannot give you thanks, death cannot praise you
Isa. 57:9:  and sent your messengers far off, and abased yourself to Sheol.
Eze. 31:15:  the Lord GOD has said, “In the day when it went down to Sheol
Eze. 31:16:  I cast him down to Sheol with those that descend into the pit
Eze. 31:17:  they also went down into Sheol with it, with those slain with the sword
Eze. 32:21:  out of the midst of Sheol with those that help him
Eze. 32:27:  which are gone down to Sheol with their weapons of war
Hos. 13:14a:  From the power of Sheol I will ransom them, from death I will redeem them.
Hos. 13:14b:  Where, death, is your pestilence?  Where, Sheol, is your destruction?
Amos 9:2:  Though they dig into Sheol, from there my hand will take them
Jonah 2:2:  out of the belly of Sheol I cried and you heard my voice.
Hab. 2:5:  who enlarges his desire as Sheol, and as death, and cannot
Matt. 11:23:  you will not be lifted up to heaven, will you? You will descend to Hades.
Matt. 16:18:  I will build my church and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it.
Luke 10:15:  you will not be exalted to heaven, will you?  You will descend to Hades.
Luke 16:23:  And in Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torment,
Acts 2:27:  you will not abandon my soul to Hades, nor will you allow your  
Acts 2:31:  soul was not left in Hades, neither did his flesh see decay
Rev. 1:18:  ages to come; and I have the keys of death and of Hades.
Rev. 6:8:  His name was Death, and Hades was following along with him;
Rev. 20:13:  and death and Hades gave back the dead that were in them,
Rev. 20:14:  And death and Hades were thrown into the Lake of Fire.

TARTARUS / THE DEPTHS OF SHEOL / THE LOWEST PART OF SHEOL

Deut. 32:22:  and will burn to the lowest part of Sheol, and will consume the earth
Psa. 86:13:  and you have delivered my soul from the lowest part of Sheol  
Pro. 9:18:  that Rephaim are there, that her guests are in the depths of Sheol.
2 Pet. 2:4:  having thrown them into Tartarus, where they are being kept for judgment 

Updated 7/2/14

2 comments:

  1. Greek translation or any language translation helps one to get acquainted with the thoughts, traditions, principles and actions of the people from the region.I might say that translation is a fascinating area to explore.It is much interesting that we actually learned not anloy languages when translating but also the culture that it started out.

    ReplyDelete

Thanks for your comments on our To The Ends Of The Earth blog. Comments will be published that seek to establish a meaningful dialogue or response to the subject of the blog. It may take several days before comments are posted.